Jak LTV wpływa na cenę i kwotę kredytu hipotecznego?

ltv

Im większy wkład własny, tym niższe LTV i tańszy kredyt. Jeśli nie mamy wymaganej przez bank gotówki, udział w transakcji możemy udokumentować w inny sposób.

Osoby, które zamierzają zaciągnąć kredyt hipoteczny, w trakcie poszukiwań najlepszej oferty na pewno spotkają się z trzyliterowym skrótem LTV. To jedno z najważniejszych pojęć odnoszących się do kredytów mieszkaniowych. Ma kluczowe znaczenie w kontekście przyznania finansowania oraz warunków (kosztów) kredytu. Czym jest więc to LTV?

 

Co to jest LTV – jak je wyliczyć?

Angielski termin loan to value oznacza stosunek kwoty kredytu (loan) do wartości nieruchomości (value) i wyrażony jest w procentach.

Przykład. Nieruchomość, którą chcemy kupić, została wyceniona na 250 tys. zł. Transakcję sfinansujemy oszczędnościami i kredytem. Załóżmy, że możemy wyłożyć 50 tys. zł. Zatem musimy jeszcze pożyczyć z banku 200 tys. zł. W tej sytuacji LTV wynosi 80 proc. (200/250).

Ubezpieczenie a wkład własny

Aktualnie stosowana praktyką rynkową jest, że osoby, które chciałyby kupić mieszkanie albo wybudować dom za pieniądze z kredytu hipotecznego, muszą wykazać się określonym wkładem własnym w realizację przedsięwzięcia. Wskutek zaleceń KNF (rekomendacja S) banki przestały pożyczać kwoty stanowiące 100 proc. i więcej ceny nieruchomości. Dlaczego?

Nadzór tłumaczył to troską o klientów. Chodziło o to, by uchronić ich przed nadmiernym zadłużeniem. W Polsce udziela się kredytów mieszkaniowych głównie na zmienną stopę. Wzrost oficjalnej ceny pieniądza pociąga za sobą wzrost oprocentowania kredytu i skutkuje wyższą ratą.

Konieczność wyłożenia przez klienta własnych środków na finansowanie części inwestycji ma pełnić także funkcję dyscyplinującą. Państwowy regulator wyszedł z założenia, że jeśli kredytobiorca zaangażuje już swoje oszczędności czy inne aktywa, by nabyć lokal, to bardziej będzie mu zależeć na terminowym spłacaniu rat.

Obowiązek przedstawienia przez klienta własnych środków podczas zawierania umowy stabilizuje też rynek. Zmniejsza bowiem ryzyko po stronie kredytodawców, co ma swoje odzwierciedlenie w proponowanym przez nich oprocentowaniu kredytów.

 

Od 2017 r. zalecany minimalny wkład własny wynosi 20 proc., czyli maksymalne LTV to 80 proc. Część banków zgadza się pożyczyć więcej – nawet 90 proc. wartości nieruchomości. Jednak stawia przynajmniej jeden warunek.

Jest nim ubezpieczenie niskiego wkładu własnego, które nieco podwyższa ratę, bo zwykle oznacza minimalnie wyższą marżę (0,2-0,25 pkt proc.). Zatem wyższe LTV oznacza droższy kredyt.

Jeśli więc nie mamy przynajmniej 10 proc. ceny mieszkania (LTV 90 proc.), bank odeśle nas z kwitkiem. Oczywiście przyznanie finansowania zależy też od innych czynników, w szczególności – scoringu i zdolności kredytowej. Lecz zwykle jest tak, że im niższe LTV (większe zaangażowanie kapitału klienta), tym większe są szanse na otrzymanie kredytu hipotecznego.

 

Co może być wkładem własnym przy kredycie hipotecznym?

Uwaga!

Wkładem własnym może być nie tylko gotówka, którą przekazujemy jako zaliczkę (zadatek) sprzedawcy.

Niektóre banki jako zamiennik gotówki albo jej uzupełnienie honorują:

  1. Środki na rachunkach bankowych, w tym oszczędności emerytalne z III filaru (IKE, IKZE, PPE, wkrótce pewnie także PPK) – blokada
  2. Papiery wartościowe i inne oszczędności (np. akcje, obligacje, fundusze inwestycyjne) – zastaw
  3. Działkę, na której chcemy wznieść dom (a także koszt jej zakupu) – w przypadku kredytu budowlanego
  4. Premię gwarancyjną z książeczki mieszkaniowej – dotyczy osób będących właścicielami książeczek założonych przed 23 października 1990 r. (jeśli takowy dokument posiada ktoś z rodziny, może go na nas scedować)
  5. Potwierdzone wydatki na poczet ceny zakupu, np. zaliczki, wpłaty na rachunek dewelopera lub właściciela mieszkania
  6. Potwierdzone wydatki na budowę i przygotowanie inwestycji, np. zakup materiałów budowlanych, robocizna (zlecona i własna – może stanowić nawet 40 proc. całkowitych nakładów na budowę), uzbrojenie działki, projekt architektoniczny – w przypadku kredytu budowlanego
  7. Wartość lub określony procent wartości innego lokalu lub gruntu będącego własnością wnioskodawcy (ale zastawiana nieruchomość nie może być obciążona hipoteką).

Uwaga!

Nie wszystkie z tych form wkładu własnego i nie przez każdą instytucję są akceptowane. Każdy podmiot stosuje tu niezależną politykę.

Przykładowo część banków uznających akcje jako wkład własny może przyjąć ich wycenę na poziomie 50-60 proc. aktualnej wartości. Jeśli więc mamy walory warte 20 tys. zł, to kredytodawca przyjmie, że będzie to 10-12 tys. zł.

To samo dotyczy przypadku, w którym wnioskodawca posiada inną nieruchomość. Niektóre organizacje finansowe mogą wymagać jej sprzedaży. Podobnie może być z papierami wartościowymi.

 

Nie zawsze warto gromadzić większy wkład własny

Udokumentowanie wkładu własnego w innej niż standardowa postaci umożliwia obniżenie LTV. Tym samym ułatwia negocjacje z bankiem w sprawie obniżenia kosztu kredytu. Przykładowo nie będziemy musieli już zamawiać karty kredytowej, zawierać dodatkowego ubezpieczenia na życie czy wiązać się wieloletnim planem inwestycyjnym z wysoką składką. Istnieje więc ścisła korelacja między poziomem LTV a ceną (łącznymi kosztami) kredytu.

Jednak nie warto pozbywać się wszystkich oszczędności, by za wszelką cenę zwiększyć swoje zaangażowanie w finansowanie zakupu mieszkania. Lepiej płacić nieco wyższą ratę, niż pozbawić się tzw. poduszki finansowej przydatnej w trudnych sytuacjach życiowych. W razie np. utraty pracy takie zaskórniaki umożliwią terminową obsługę zadłużenia i kupią czas na poszukiwanie innego źródła dochodu.

Poza tym obniżanie LTV nie zawsze jest opłacalne. Tylko nieliczne banki premiują niższymi kosztami kredytu zwiększone zaangażowanie klienta w transakcję. Granicą jest  20 % i o to warto się postara jeżeli mamy takie możliwości.

 

Praktyka rynkowa pokazuje, że banki mogą naliczać wyższą marżę dla kredytów z większym udziałem własnym klienta. Dlaczego? Kredyty z LTV mniejszym niż 50 proc. to zwykle zobowiązania zaciągane na krótki termin, a na takich instytucje finansowe zarabiają niewiele.

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